CentOS vs. Ubuntu - javatpoint
CentOS is a distribution of Linux that facilitates a free and community-supported computing environment functionally compatible with the upstream source (Red Hat Enterprise Linux).
CentOS published an official joining with Red Hat during staying independent through RHEL upon a new governing board of CentOS.
The first release of CentOS was in 2004 May that was known as version 2 CentOS.
In 2002, CentOS created as the CAOS Linux build that is RPM-based distribution of Linux begun by Gregory Kurtzer. Innfiscale defined its GravityOS as the small footprint of Caos, representing a certain influence level through the discontinued distribution.
The main Tao Linux developer (David Parsley) announced Tao Linux retirement and its rolling inside the development of CentOS in June 2006. The users of Tao migrated the release of CentOS by yum update.
CentOS ignored Debian for becoming the most famous distribution of Linux for several web servers in July 2010 along with 30% of every web server of Linux using it. After that, in January 2012, Debian takes back the lead.
The employee of Red Hat and governing board representative of CentOS announced that the community of CentOS will be "shift focus" through classic Linux to CentOS Stream in 2020 December 8.
Starting community's reply to this announcement was negative overwhelmingly.
Soon thereafter, the founder of CentOS (Gregory Kurtzer) announced a newer project for continuing the actual focus of CentOS which became called Rocky Linux. CloudLinux OS makers (Cloud Linux) published the 8 clones AlmaLinux of CentOS in 2021 on March 30.
Special Interest groups are organized parts of the community of CentOS that open several paths to build specialized CentOS variants which fulfill a particular set of needs.
SIGs contain the freedom for modifying and enhancing CentOS in several ways including concatenating much cutting-edge software, giving alternative desktop platforms, recreating exiting packages based on the needs, or enabling CentOS available on unsupported architectures otherwise.
CentOS completely supports 64-bit ARM, POWER8, and x86-64 architectures as of 8 versions while the below architectures aren't supported:
CentOS AltArch releases are available for the AArch64 and ARMv7hl variants of the architecture of ARM and plans available to support various other versions of the ARM architecture as of December 2015.
The support of ARM is an effort of community which is coordinated by the AltArch SIG.
CentOS AltArch releases are also available for the Power ISA (POWER8 and POWER7 chips) and IA-32 architecture.
CentOS Live CD version is available on the mirror.centos.org website. Manually, CentOS bootable Live USM image can be made or using UNetbootin.
The images of CentOS are available on the EC2 cloud of Amazon in the mode of prebuilt and published Amazon Machine Images (short for AMIs).
RHEL is existed only for development use and by a paid subscription service in a non-production platform which gives access to various varying levels and software updates of technical support.
Largely, the project is composed of several packages of software share under the source code and free software licenses for the packages are made social by Red Hat.
The version numbers of CentOS for releases that are older than 7.0 contain two parts:
Where the minor version is related to the major version and Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) update set used for building a specific CentOS release.
Beginning with the 7.0 version, the version numbers of CentOS also contain a third party that represents the source code's monthstamp.
There are three main repositories of CentOS which are called channels. These repositories are containing various packages of software that make up the primary distribution of CentOS. These repositories are listed and explained below:
The project of CentOS gives many other repositories that include software packages not given by the updates and base repositories. Those repositories contain the below:
It can be defined as a Linux distribution midstream of rolling release among the development of upstream within Fedora and the development of downstream for RHEL.
Ubuntu is the Linux distribution that is based on Debian. Mostly, it is composed of open source and free software. Officially, Ubuntu is published in three essential editions which are as follows:
Each of these additions can execute in a virtual machine or on the computer alone. Ubuntu is a famous OS for cloud computing along with OpenStack support. The default desktop of Ubuntu has been GNOME since the 17.10 version.
Ubuntu is published every six months along with LTS releases every two years. The latest LTS release is Focal Fossa (20.04) as of 2020 22 October. The current standard publication is Groovy Gorilla (20.10). It is supported for nine months.
This line distribution is designed by canonical and a group of other developers. It is based on a meritocratic governance model. Canonical gives support and security updates for all releases of Ubuntu, starting through the publication date and until the publication reaches it's developed end of life date. Canonical produces revenue using the premium services of sale associated with Ubuntu.
1. Default Installation: Ubuntu's default installation contains a huge range of software that contains Firefox, Transmission, Thunderbird, LibreOffice, and various games (lightweight) like chess and Sudoku.
2. Packages: Several additional packages of software can be accessible using the Ubuntu software (built-in) and other tools of APT-based package management.
Several additional packages of software that are by default no longer installed like Synaptic, GIMP, Pidgin, and Evolution, are authorized within the repositories and also installable using the primary tool or any other tool of APT-based package management.
3. Flatpaks and snap packages: Cross-distribution flatpaks and snap packages also exist. These both packages permit installing software, like some of the software of Microsoft, in most of the big Linux operating system.
GNOME file is the file manager (default) which is formerly called Nautilus.
4. Cost: By default, each application software installed is free software. Ubuntu redistributes a few hardware drivers also that exist in binary format only, however, these types of packages are openly marked inside the restrained component.
Officially, the Ubuntu desktop is the variant suggested for most of the users. It is simply known as Ubuntu and formally known as Ubuntu Desktop Edition.
It is developed for laptop PCs and desktops and supported by Canonical officially. From Ubuntu version 17.10, the GNOME shell is the desktop environment (default).
From Ubuntu version 11.04 to Ubuntu version 17.04, the default was the Unity desktop interface. Several other variants are differentiated by simply providing a distinct desktop environment.
Xfce and LXqt are often suggested for applying with earlier PCs that might have less processing power and memory available.
Many flavors and editions of Ubuntu simply install a distinct collection of default packages than the standard Ubuntu desktop. Because they distribute similar package repositories, each of the similar software is exist for all of them.
The Core of Ubuntu is a sole exception because it has only access to the packages within the Snap store.
Some of the major distributions and their description are discussed below:
Some more comparisons between CentOS and Ubuntu are as follows:
Ubuntu operating system is developed by Canonical. It means we can purchase support contracts.
Officially, CentOS has no backing. However, there is a third party that provides support for CentOS like OpenLogic. Both of these operating systems are free of cost. Besides, the support is an additional service that could be bought.
CentOS operating systems are widely used for servers around the Internet. Even Linux of Amazon is based on RHEL/CentOS. Besides, Ubuntu is more frequently used for many desktops.
CentOS operating system is frequently updated. Usually, it updates with bug fixes and security for all major versions.
All major versions are supported for 10 years through the release date (based on the schedule of RHEL). It is because of the comprehensive testing in all releases.
Ubuntu operating system is frequently updated every six months.
The support of Ubuntu is provided for a variant for five years. Due to this, software contributes to be more recent along with new software. However, this software will be less stable.
CentOS distribution uses the format of the RPM package. A program known as rpm is used for managing packages. A front-end resource known as yum was developed for managing network dependencies, repositories, and other action combinations.
Ubuntu uses the format of the DEB package. It uses a resource known as apt for managing DEB packages similarly like dnf/yum is layered over the rpm top.,Both of these resources/tools manage the interactions among packages and permitting us to just apply the one tool for doing necessary things.
Also, there may be differences in package availability for all distributions. A few vendors may just facilitate a package for CentOS/RHEL or Ubuntu. The software might be called different and differently managed. Different distributions might use different packaging methods and tools for managing software with naming conventions.
Apache is known as apache2 on Ubuntu and uses a few special scripts for managing virtual websites and hosts. Besides, it is known as httpd on CentOS and manipulates the configuration differently.
Both Ubuntu and CentOS are Linux. It means these two operating systems have the quite same core. But there are some differences among the tools of management.
For example, managing network interfaces are implemented with similar tools ifconfig, ip, etc. Both of these distributions have made helper programs for helping to manipulate those interfaces easily.
However, those particular tools are distinct among the distributions. Hence, there are a few distribution particulars that is not transferable easily among the two.
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